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آموزشی و تربیتی و روانشناسی - A list of short- form words
آموزشی و تربیتی و روانشناسی
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Word MeaningShort-formWord MeaningShort-form
aboutababoveabv
accordingacacrossacr
afterafafternoonafn
afterwardafwagainag
againstag(st)almostalm
alreadyalralsoal
althoughal(th)altogetheralt
alwaysalwbecause(be)c
before(be)fbehind(be)h
below(be)lbeneath(be)n
beside(be)sbetween(be)t
beyond(be)yblindbl
braillebrlchildren(ch)n
firstf(st)friendfr
goodgdgreatgrt
immediateimmletterlr
littlellmustm(st)
necessaryneco'clocko'c
paidpdperhapsp(er)h
quickqksaidsd
togethertgrcouldcd
should(sh)dwouldwd
eithereineithernei
muchm(ch)suchs(ch)
todaytdtonighttn
tomorrowtmhimhm
himselfhmfitsxs
itselfxfyouryr
yourselfyrfyourselvesyrvs
herselfh(er)fmyselfmyf
oneself(one)fourselves(ou)rvs
themselves(the)mvsthyself(th)yf
declaredcldeclaringdclg
rejoicerjcrejoicingrjcg
conceive(con)cvconceiving(con)cvg
deceivedcvdeceivingdcvg
perceivep(er)cvperceivingp(er)cvg
receivercvreceivingrcvg

The rules for the use of these contractions are as follows:


  1. Short-Form Words
    1. May be used as parts of words as well as whole words.
      (above)bo(ar)dun(necessary)
      (be)(little)d(first)-born
      (immediate)ly(good)(ness)

      1. May never be divided at the end of a line, but may be separated from any added syllable.
        (immediate)-
        ly
        un-
        (perceive)d
        mis-
        (conceive)
        mid-
        (afternoon)

      2. May never be used as parts of words unless the original meaning is retained.
        (sh)(ou)ld(er)mu(st)a(ch)e
        bloodlett(er)Port Said

      3. May not be used in unusual words.
        (st)irab(ou)t

      4. The short forms after, blind, and friend are used when followed by a consonant, but may not be used when followed by a vowel unless the vowel begins a line in a divided word.
        (after)ma(th)(blind)(ness)(friend)ly
        aft(er)e(ff)ect(bl(in)d(ing)(be)fri(en)d(ed)
        (after)-
        e(ff)ect
        (blind)-
        (ing)
        (be)(friend)-
        (ed)

    2. May represent a whole proper name, but never part of a word in a proper name.
      (Th)omas (Little)Jimmy Doolittle
      (The) Quicksilv(er)Fri(en)d(sh)ip Hei(gh)ts

    3. May be used as parts of common words that are not regarded as proper names in the titles or headings of books, chapters, articles, or songs and in the names of companies or organizations.
      (The) (Great)e(st) (St)ory (Ever) Told
      N(one) (such) Bak(ing) Co.
      (Children)s Press


    The rules for this group of contractions are fairly clear and straightforward. These contractions can be used as both whole-word and part-word contractions. Part-word usage is permitted for both compound and divided words. Caution should be taken not to use these short-form words when the "e" is dropped prior to adding a suffix, such as in the word "declaration". If you use the contraction, you would have "declareation", which is, of course, spelled incorrectly!

    As the rules state, these contractions can also be used for proper names, as long as the short-form word represents the entire proper name. Think about why this is so. If you look at a name like "Goody", the use of the contraction would give you "Gdy". There is no reason, although it is certainly unlikely, why someone might not have the proper name "Gdy" -- for example, if you notice proper names from the Middle East, there are often some interesting names, especially after being transliterated from a foreign alphabet such as Cyrillic. You can, however, use these contractions in titles, names of books, and other names that are unlikely to be confused.

    Caution should also be taken in that these contractions should only be used as a part-word if they retain their original meaning. Likewise, be careful with the contractions "after", "blind", and "friend". You should not use these contractions as part-words if a vowel follows the contraction. For example, (after)math is permitted, but (after)effect is not. The rationale behind this is that it is highly unlikely that there will be a word consisting of three consonants in a row ("afmath"), but it is possible for there to be a word with two ("afimage"). This rule is not in place if the word after the contraction comes at the beginning of a new line in a hyphenated word.





نوع مطلب : English Subjects، 
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پنجشنبه 20 مهر 1391 :: نویسنده : آوین
 
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